Unit 2-Grammar: Adding information

Relative Pronouns 

Relative Pronouns 

relative pronoun
use
example
who
subject or object pronoun for people
I told you about the woman who lives next door.
which
subject or object pronoun for animals and things
Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof?
which
referring to a whole sentence
He couldn’t read which surprised me.
whose
possession for people animals and things
Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse?
whom
object pronoun for people, especially in non-defining relative clauses (in defining relative clauses we colloquially prefer who)
I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference.
that
subject or object pronoun for people, animals and things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible)
I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen.
Relative Pronouns
The following relative pronouns are used in defining relative clauses. These relative pronouns appear at the start of the defining relative clause and refer to a noun that appears earlier in the sentence.

Person
Thing
Place
Time
Reason
Subject
who/that
which/that



Object
who/whom/that
which/that
where
when
why
Possessive
Whose
whose




Defining Relative Clause

Defining relative clauses define, identify, or give essential information about a noun.
There are shows that/which pay for plastic surgery.
We love to read about the people (who/that) celebrities date and the clothes (that) they wear.

Defining relative clauses are often used in definitions.

A seaman is someone who works on a ship.

Examples:

  1. Children who hate chocolate are uncommon.
  2.  They live in a house whose roof is full of holes.
  3. An elephant is an animal that lives in hot countries.
  4. Let's go to a country where the sun always shines.
  5. The reason why I came here today is not important.
Object pronouns in defining relative clauses can be dropped. (Sentences with a relative clause without the relative pronoun are called Contact Clauses.)

The boy (who/whom) we met yesterday is very nice.

Examples:

  1.  There's something (that) you should know.
  2.  It was the best film (that) I've ever seen.
  3.  Do you have anything that will help my throat?
  4. Everything (that) you say seems silly to me.
  5.  Nothing (that) anyone does can replace my lost bag.
  6.  I'm sorry, but that is all (that) I saw.

Non-defining Relative Clause
Non-defining relative clauses give extra information about a noun.
They do not begin with that. Notice the use of commas.
Celebrity magazines, which outnumber news magazines, are everywhere.
It’s natural to talk about celebrities, who we see as successful people.

Examples:

  1.  John's mother, who lives in Scotland, has 6 grandchildren.
  2.  My friend John, who went to the same school as me, has just written a best-selling novel.
  3.  My grandmother, who is dead now, came from the North of England.
  4. We stopped at the museum, which we had never visited before.
  5.  I've just come back from London, where John lives.
  6. Yesterday I met a woman named Susan, whose husband works in London.
A which clause can add information or a comment to the clause before it.
This obsession is normal, which is reassuring.
Celebrities come into our homes, which almost makes them family.






Grammar: Linking ideas

That clauses

You can use a that clause after these structures. In conversation people often leave out the word that.
Noun + be
 One problem with TV is (that) it reduces students’ reading time.
Be + adjective
 It’s clear (that) TV viewing contributes to inactivity.
What’s + adj. + be
What's disturbing is (that) TV may have an effect on language development.
Verbs
e.g. 
   know
   think
  say
  show
   claim


Experts claim (that) watching TV is one cause of obesity.

Claim= assert, declare, profess, maintain, state, hold, affirm, avow, argue, contend, allege, aver

Answers (page 23)

  1. Experts say/think/know/ show that people who watch TV spend more on consumer goods.
  2. It’s disturbing that the majority of families have TV on during mealtimes.
  3. What’s interesting is that most people multitask and do other things while watching TV.
  4. One recent study shows that young people who watch a lot of TV are not very happy with their lives.
  5. My feeling is that it’s not good for anyone to have a TV in the bedroom.
  6. My opinion is that TV is a good thing because there are lots of good educational programs
  7. The problem with TV is that there are too many commercials and not enough good shows.
  8. Teachers are concerned that children are watching so much TV these days.
…about
…between
… for
…of
Concern
Link
Advertisements
Cause
Relationship
Reasons





…in
…with
… on
increase
problem
effects
rise
impact
influence
research














More about:

No comments:

Post a Comment